A hand-woven carpet is made by interlacing vertical (warp/tana) and horizontal (weft/bana) threads of yarn. The intertwining of the threads is made on a hand-loom on which the operators can weave a wide variety of patterns.
A hand-loom is operated by one to three weavers depending on the width of its structure. And, for every four hand-loom, a master weaver is generally assigned to supervise the smooth conduct of the weaving, as well as plan, prepare and maintain the equipment.
Most hand-woven carpets are flat, light, flexible and reversible carpets, also known as dhurries or flat-weaves.
However, they can come in multiple different formats, ranging from flat to shaggy, with and without backing, and can even be used as a canvas for hand-tufted and table-tufted carpets.
Three types of hand-looms are used inside of our factory :
The broad-loom (or frame-loom)
The type of hand-loom used is dictated by the type of design aimed to be woven.
The more elaborate the design, the more hand-work is often required. Thus, the less machine assistance will be required
hand-work is needed to elaborate the design, the less loom assistance will be required
The pit-loom is originally a horizontal hand-loom built around a hole inside which the weavers take place to weave. However, even if the name persists, most pit-loom in the industry now refer to regular hand-looms designed to use flying shuttles, as their mechanism are identical.
The panja-loom takes its name from the tool used by the weavers to tighten the vertical threads of yarns. It is a vertical hand-loom on which the vertical threads of yarns are inserted between the horizontal ones manually and then beaten in place with a panja, a racket-like tool with claws.
The process of weaving on a panja-loom is the longest but allows the weavers to disregard constraints brought by all other hand-looms in terms of design and patterns. It is possible to weave any kind of complex design, within certain resolution limits.
Note that panja, while being the main tool used on a panja-loom, can also be used elsewhere, such as on a pit-loom, when a high degree of tightness is required.